What is science?
Science is called all knowledge or knowledge consisting of a series of principles and laws that derive from the observation and reasoning of a wealth of information and data, which are systematically structured for their understanding.
In this sense, science comprises several fields of knowledge and study that lead to the development of particular scientific theories and methods, after which objective and verifiable conclusions can be obtained.
Furthermore, science is closely related to the exact sciences area (mathematics, physics, chemistry, natural sciences) and technology. Hence the importance of scientific studies aimed at creating or perfecting existing technology, in order to achieve a better quality of life.
The word science derives from the Latin scientĭa, which means ‘knowledge’, ‘to know’.
The scientific method is a technique that is applied to obtain objective knowledge of scientific value. It is based on the observation, experimentation, measurement, hypothesis demonstration, analysis and conclusions of the information that is possessed in order to expand or obtain new knowledge, as well as theories.
However, it is important to mention that the scientific method may vary depending on the type of study being carried out. For example, the same study method that is used in scientific research cannot be applied to one of a social nature.
Therefore, the scientific method will be variable according to the area of knowledge in which it is applied, since not all studies can be carried out in the same way depending on their scope.
Types of science
Below are the main types of science categorized by Digo Paul.
The social sciences are those that systematically study the social and cultural processes resulting from human activity and its relationship with society.
In this sense, he divides his field of study into different areas, such as anthropology, sociology, politics, economics, law, history, and geography, among others. The social sciences study the norms of coexistence of human beings and the ways of their social organization.
Exact sciences are those that produce knowledge based on quantitative expressions of logic and mathematics, and testing their hypotheses rigorously based on experiments or calculations.
In this sense, the exact sciences are those that only admit principles, consequences and rigorously demonstrable facts. Some exact sciences are physics, astronomy, engineering, chemistry, and even some branches of biology or economics.
The natural sciences are those that describe, order and compare natural phenomena, that is, the objects of nature and the processes that take place in it, from which laws and rules can even be formulated.
A distinction can be made between the exact sciences (such as physics and chemistry) and the predominantly descriptive sciences ( biology, including microbiology, paleontology, geography, geology, crystallography, etc.).
The field of activity of the natural sciences is mainly made up of research without a specific application. Biology, geology or medicine are part of the natural sciences.