Cell biology is the science that studies the properties, characteristics, evolution, life cycle and interaction of the cell with its environment. Cellular biology is also known as cell biochemistry.
Studies of cell biology derive from previous disciplines such as cytology (branch of biology that studies cells) and histology (discipline that studies organic tissues).
Studies in relation to cell biology are relatively recent and focus on the idea that the cell is the fundamental unit of life, therefore it is important to know in depth what are the cellular processes and how they are carried out.
In this sense, cell biology studies the functioning of cellular systems and how they are structured, hence it is an area of multidisciplinary study in which they relate, especially, both cell biology and molecular biology.
Cellular biology also studies the organisms that lodge in cells such as provirus, viruses, bacteria, etc., which also contain DNA from current infections and our ancestors, helping to find cures for diseases.
Even, in theory it is believed that through the knowledge of a cell that contains the complete genome a whole organism could originate.
Role of cell biology
The subjects studied in cell biology are broad and there is no clear limit to the study of the branches of biology. Some of the subjects that are part of cell biology are:
- Cell display
- Cell membrane structure
- Transport through cell membranes
- Cell signaling
- The cellular compartmentalization
- Cycle and mechanics of cell division
- Cell death
- Unions and adhesions between cells and the extracellular matrix
- Cellular mechanisms of development
Difference between cell biology and molecular biology
Cellular biology is a branch of specialization closely linked to molecular biology. The difference between molecular biology and cell biology lies in the focus of their study.
The molecular biology studies specifically functions of the molecular structure, particularly in relation to the genetic material (DNA and RNA).