Biology is the science that studies the origin, evolution and characteristics of living beings, as well as their vital processes, their behavior and their interaction with each other and with the environment.
The word, as such, is formed with the Greek roots βίος (bios), which means ‘life’, and -λογία (-logy), which means ‘science’ or ‘study’.
As such, biology is responsible for describing and explaining the behavior and characteristics that differentiate living beings, either as individuals, well considered as a whole, as a species.
Importance of biology
One of the fundamental objectives of biology is to establish the laws that govern the life of organisms. That is, it covers the study of the origin of life and its evolution throughout our existence.
Hence, it is necessary to carry out research and studies on living beings constantly. This has allowed us to know better how complex microorganisms are and the functioning of our body.
Likewise, scientific research in biology has enabled several specialists to have been able to create medicines and vaccines that fight infections or prevent diseases to improve our quality of life, including animals and plants.
Therefore, biology is also a science that brings great knowledge to other branches of scientific study.
Biology is a vast science from which multiple branches emerge that delve into the most diverse aspects related to living organisms, such as:
- Anatomy: study the internal and external structures of living beings.
- Bacteriology: study of bacteria.
- Biomedicine: studies on the health of human beings.
- Biochemistry: study of chemical processes.
- Ecology: study the organisms and their relationships, even with the environment.
- Embryology: study the development of embryos.
- Entomology: study of insects.
- Ethology: study of human and animal behavior.
- Evolutionary biology: study of the change that living beings suffer over time.
- Phylogeny: study of how living beings evolve.
- Genetics: study of genes.
- Histology: study of the composition and structure of tissues.
- Immunology: studies of the body’s mechanisms to fight toxins, antigens, among others.
- Mycology: study of fungi.
- Microbiology: study of microorganisms.
- Organography: study of the organs of animals and plants.
- Paleontology: study of the organisms that lived on Earth in the past.
- Taxonomy: study that allows the classification of living beings.
- Virology: study of viruses.
- Zoology: study of animals.
The molecular biology is the part of biology that studies the processes of living beings from a molecular point of view. Specifically, it focuses on the study of two macromolecules: nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA, and proteins.
As cell biology, also known as cell biochemistry and previously called cytology, it is the part of biology that studies the biological phenomena that take place in cells, as well as their properties, structure, functions, organelles, life cycle and the way in which They interact with their surroundings. It is a discipline related to molecular biology.
Marine biology is the branch of biology that is responsible for studying the organisms that inhabit marine ecosystems, as well as the conservation of marine life and its environment in a physical and chemical sense.