According to andyeducation, Swaziland’s education system is based on the 8-4-4 model, which is divided into three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary level includes eight years of compulsory schooling from ages 6 to 14. During this period, students learn basic literacy and numeracy skills as well as other core subjects such as English language arts; mathematics; science; social studies; geography; history; business studies ; physical education ; health sciences ; technology & engineering ; music & art ; religion & ethics. In addition to these core subjects, the curriculum also includes electives such as home economics or agriculture. At the end of primary school, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) which determines their eligibility for admission into secondary school. Secondary education consists of four years of instruction divided into two levels: lower secondary (grades 9-10) and upper secondary (grades 11-12). Lower secondary education focuses on providing a broad curriculum while upper secondary provides more specialized instruction in either general or vocational/technical streams. General stream courses include science & technology, humanities & social sciences or arts & design while vocational/technical streams may specialize in areas such as hospitality management, automotive engineering or information technology. Upon completion of grades 11 and 12, students take an examination known as the Swaziland Certificate of Secondary Education (SCSE). The SCSE results determine a student’s eligibility for higher educational institutions in Swaziland or abroad. Tertiary education in Swaziland is provided by universities, polytechnics and professional schools offering courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate level with degrees ranging from bachelor’s degrees through doctorates depending on the institution and course chosen by the student. In addition to academic qualifications, many universities also offer vocational training courses designed to equip students with skills required for employment in various fields such as medicine, engineering or business management. Overall Swaziland’s educational system strives to equip its citizens with knowledge and skills required for success in life while also instilling values that promote peace and harmony within society. The government has implemented various initiatives such as free primary school tuition fees and improved access to higher educational institutions through scholarships or financial aid programs in order to ensure that all citizens have equal access to quality education regardless of their economic background or gender identity. See educationvv for Eswatini educational systems.