According to andyeducation, Spain has a well-developed educational system that is based on the principles of equality, quality, and accessibility. The Spanish education system is divided into four levels: pre-primary education, primary education, secondary education, and higher education. Pre-primary Education in Spain is offered to children from age three to six years old. This level of education aims to provide an introduction to the Spanish language as well as basic knowledge in areas such as mathematics, science, and social studies. Pre-primary education typically lasts three years and is not compulsory in Spain. Primary Education in Spain is offered to children aged six to twelve years old and is compulsory for all Spanish citizens. Primary school curricula are based on the national curriculum guidelines set forth by the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport (MECD). Primary school classes typically consist of English language instruction; mathematics; science; social studies; health sciences; music & art; physical education; foreign languages such as French or German; as well as other electives such as home economics or agriculture. The duration of primary school is typically six years for students aged 6 to 12 years old. Secondary Education in Spain is divided into two levels: lower secondary (educación secundaria obligatoria) for students aged 12 to 16 years old and upper secondary (bachillerato) for students aged 16 to 18 years old. Lower secondary curriculum includes instruction in English language arts; mathematics; science; social studies; geography; history; business studies; physical education; health sciences; technology & engineering music & art religion & ethics foreign languages such as Arabic or French ;as well as other electives such as home economics or agriculture. Upper secondary curriculum focuses on more specialized subjects related to a particular field of study chosen by the student such as science & technology, humanities & social sciences or arts & design. Higher Education in Spain consists of universities (universidades), polytechnics (politécnicos), university colleges (universidades de educación a distancia) and professional schools (escuelas universitarias). Higher education institutions offer courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate level with degrees ranging from bachelor’s degrees through doctorates depending on the institution and course chosen by the student. In addition there are also private higher educational institutes which offer more specialized courses than those available at public universities but tend to be more expensive than their public counterparts due to their smaller class sizes and more personalized approach towards teaching students. See educationvv for Spain educational systems.