According to andyeducation, the educational system in South Sudan is characterized by its diversity and complexity. The primary and secondary education systems are largely divided into two categories: formal and informal. Formal education is provided in government-run schools, while informal education is provided in community-run schools, religious institutions, and other private organizations. In terms of primary education, the government provides free primary school attendance for all children aged 6 to 15 years. Primary school curricula are based on the national curriculum guidelines set forth by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Primary school classes typically consist of English language instruction, mathematics, science, social studies, health sciences, music and art. The duration of primary school is typically six years for students aged 6 to 12 years old. In terms of secondary education, the government provides formal secondary schooling from grade seven to grade twelve (ages 13 to 18) at both public and private schools. Secondary education curricula are also based on MEST guidelines and include instruction in English language arts; mathematics; science; social studies; geography; history; business studies; physical education; health sciences; technology and engineering; music & art; religion & ethics; foreign languages such as Arabic or French; as well as other electives such as home economics or agriculture. In addition to formal schooling systems in South Sudan there is also a vibrant informal educational sector that includes religious institutions such as Islamic madrasas or Christian seminaries as well as adult literacy classes offered through non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These institutions provide alternative forms of learning opportunities for those who cannot access or afford traditional schooling systems. Overall the educational system in South Sudan faces many challenges due to inadequate funding from both the public and private sectors as well as a lack of qualified teachers due to ongoing conflict within the country. Despite these challenges however there has been some progress made in recent years with increased investment from international donors such as USAID which has resulted in increased access to basic education for more children throughout the country.