According to andyeducation, Rwanda’s educational system is based on the principle of ‘Education for All’, with a focus on providing quality education to all citizens. It is divided into three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary education in Rwanda is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14. It typically consists of six years of instruction, culminating in a final exam which determines the student’s eligibility to pursue further studies at the secondary level. Primary school curriculum includes English, French, Mathematics and sciences as well as Social Studies, Physical Education and Technology. Secondary education in Rwanda is divided into two stages: general academic (gymnasium) and specialized (vocational). General academic education lasts for four years while vocational training can last up to three years. At the end of this stage, students are awarded a certificate or diploma which allows them to pursue further studies or enter the labour market. The curriculum at this level emphasizes science and mathematics as well as studying other subjects such as History, Geography and Physical Education. Tertiary education in Rwanda is provided by both public and private universities, polytechnics and institutes. Public universities are funded by the government while private universities are funded by tuition fees paid by students or their sponsors. Higher education consists of Bachelor’s (3-4 years), Master’s (1-2 years) and Doctoral (3-5 years) degrees with specializations in fields such as engineering, medicine and business administration. The Ministry of Education regulates higher education curricula including minimum admission requirements for each institution. In addition to traditional academic studies, Rwanda also offers non-formal educational opportunities such as apprenticeships, distance learning courses and vocational training programmes which can be beneficial for individuals who may not have access to formal education due to financial constraints or other reasons. The Rwandan government has made significant progress in improving access to quality education since 2000 through increased public spending on infrastructure development such as building new schools and providing scholarships for needy students. The government also focuses on teacher training programmes aimed at improving teaching standards across all levels of schooling in order to ensure that all citizens have access to quality education regardless of their social background or financial means. See educationvv for Rwanda educational systems.