According to andyeducation, the educational system in Poland is composed of four main levels: pre-school, basic education, secondary education and higher education. Pre-school education is not compulsory but is highly recommended to provide a good foundation for the child’s future development. Basic education consists of 8 years of primary school followed by 4 years of lower secondary school. Secondary education can be divided into two types – general and vocational. General secondary schools are designed to prepare students for higher education while vocational schools prepare students for specific professions. Higher education in Poland is provided by both public and private universities, as well as other institutions such as polytechnics, academies and colleges. Public universities are funded by the state while private universities are funded by donations or tuition fees paid by the students. Higher education consists of Bachelor’s (3-4 years), Master’s (1-2 years) and Doctoral (3-5 years) degrees. The curriculum at all levels is regulated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSW). See educationvv for Poland educational systems.