According to andyeducation, Myanmar has a two-tiered educational system, consisting of both formal and informal education. Formal education consists of pre-primary, primary, middle, and secondary schooling. Pre-primary education is not compulsory, but is available in some private schools and kindergartens. Primary education is compulsory for children aged 6 to 11 and provides a basic foundation in language, mathematics, science, social studies and ethics. Primary schools are located throughout the country in both rural and urban areas. Middle school is optional for students aged 11 to 14 years old. It is divided into two stages; lower secondary (Grades 6–8) which focuses on general knowledge and higher secondary (Grades 9–10) which focuses more on the sciences such as physics and chemistry as well as more specialized subjects such as economics or engineering. Upon completion of Grade 10 students can either continue their studies at a secondary school or enroll in a vocational or technical program. Secondary schooling consists of three grades (grades 11-13) and provides students with more specialized instruction focused on preparing them for higher education or employment opportunities. Admission into universities requires successful completion of secondary school exams while admission into specialized institutions requires successful completion of exams administered by the Ministry Of Education And Human Development (MEHD). Higher education in Myanmar consists primarily of public universities which offer diplomas or certificates in specific fields such as business administration or computer science. In addition to traditional university programs there are also several private post-secondary institutions such as University Of Yangon which offers programs in engineering; the University Of Mandalay which offers programs in business management; and University Of East Asia which offers courses in international relations and diplomacy. In addition to its formal educational system, Myanmar also has an informal educational system that includes non-formal primary schools, adult literacy classes, teacher training initiatives, pre-schools, early childhood development centers and community learning centers. These informal educational initiatives are aimed at providing citizens with access to quality education regardless of their age or socioeconomic status. Overall, Myanmar’s educational system provides citizens with quality educational opportunities throughout their academic lives allowing them to gain knowledge that will help them succeed in their chosen career paths upon completion of their studies thanks largely due to initiatives implemented by the government aimed at improving student performance ensuring that all individuals have access to quality education. See educationvv for Myanmar educational systems.