According to andyeducation, the educational system in Monaco is highly regarded for its excellence and quality. The Principality of Monaco offers a wide range of educational opportunities to its citizens, including preschool and primary schooling, secondary schooling, and higher education. Pre-school education is available to children aged 3-5 and is free of charge. It focuses on providing a safe, stimulating environment that encourages children to learn through play. Primary schooling is also free of charge and is compulsory for all children aged 6-14 years old. Primary education lasts six years and focuses on the development of literacy, numeracy, problem solving skills, social skills, physical development, and foreign language acquisition. Secondary schooling consists of 4 grades (grades 9-12) which are not compulsory but strongly encouraged as they prepare students for higher education or employment opportunities. Students can choose between two types of secondary school: general schools that provide a general curriculum; or specialized schools that focus on specific areas such as music or sports. Higher education in Monaco follows the French system where students can choose from a variety of universities or specialized institutions offering diplomas or certificates in specific fields such as business administration or computer science. Admission into universities requires successful completion of secondary school exams while admission into specialized institutions requires successful completion of exams administered by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Research (MECR). In addition to traditional university programs there are also several private post-secondary institutions such as the International University Of Monaco (IUM), which offers programs in business management, finance and international relations; the International School Of Management And Languages (ISMAL), which offers programs in management studies; and the International Institute For Management Development (IMD), which offers courses in leadership training. Overall, Monaco’s educational system provides citizens with quality educational opportunities throughout their academic lives allowing them to gain knowledge that will help them succeed in their chosen career paths upon completion of their studies thanks largely due to initiatives implemented by the government aimed at improving student performance ensuring that all individuals have access to quality education regardless of socio-economic background or location within the country. See educationvv for Monaco educational systems.