According to andyeducation, education in Libya is overseen by the Ministry of Education and is free and compulsory for all children aged 6 to 15. Primary school typically lasts six years and covers core subjects such as language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, physical education, art, music and foreign languages. At the end of primary school students take the Primary School Leaving Exam which determines their eligibility for secondary school. Secondary school in Libya consists of both academic and vocational programs. Academic programs are divided into two streams; general education which focuses on topics such as mathematics, science, foreign languages, and humanities; or technical education which focuses on trades such as engineering or agriculture so that students can enter the workforce after completing their studies. After completing secondary school students may choose to continue their studies at a higher educational institution in Libya where they can earn a bachelor’s degree or higher. Higher education in Libya includes universities, colleges, polytechnics and other specialized institutions offering a variety of courses ranging from one year diploma programs to four year degree programs. Students must take a special entrance exam in order to be accepted into higher educational institutions in Libya. Upon completion of their studies students receive a diploma or certificate confirming their qualifications. In addition to traditional higher educational institutions there are also several private universities in Libya that offer more specialized programs such as business management or international relations. Furthermore there are also several research institutes that specialize in scientific research such as the Libyan Academy of Science and Technology which focuses on areas like astronomy, biotechnology, energy technology and environmental sciences. See educationvv for Libya educational systems.