According to andyeducation, the education system in Latvia is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Science. Primary education is free and compulsory for all citizens of Latvia, starting at age seven and lasting for nine years. During primary school students learn basic core subjects such as mathematics, language arts, science, social studies, and physical education. At the end of primary school students take the State Exam which determines their eligibility for secondary school. Secondary school in Latvia consists of both academic and vocational programs, each lasting four years. Academic programs focus on general education topics such as mathematics, science, foreign languages, and humanities while vocational programs provide specialized training in trades such as engineering or agriculture so that students can enter the workforce after completing their studies. After completing secondary school students may choose to continue their studies at a higher educational institution in Latvia where they can earn a bachelor’s degree or higher. Higher education in Latvia includes universities, institutes, academies, conservatories, and specialized higher educational institutions. Programs can last anywhere from two to five years depending on the level of study and specialization chosen by a student. Students must take a special entrance exam in order to be accepted into higher educational institutions in Latvia. Upon completion of their studies students receive a diploma or certificate confirming their qualifications. See educationvv for Latvia educational systems.