According to andyeducation, Iceland’s educational system is divided into three levels: primary, secondary, and higher education. Primary education is compulsory and free for all children aged 6-16, and consists of ten grades. During this period, students are introduced to the basic concepts of reading, writing, mathematics, social studies, science, physical education and foreign language. Secondary education in Iceland is divided into two cycles: general secondary (grades 10-12) and vocational secondary (grades 10-14). The general secondary cycle prepares students for further studies at university or college while the vocational cycle focuses on providing practical skills necessary for specific professions such as engineering, healthcare or business management. Most schools offer a combination of the two cycles so that students can decide which path to pursue after completing their studies. Higher education in Iceland is offered through both public institutions such as the University of Iceland or Reykjavík University as well as private universities such as Bifröst University or Holar University. These universities offer a variety of programs ranging from undergraduate degrees to doctorates in fields such as law; economics; international relations; engineering; medicine; architecture; social work; psychology; journalism; computer science and more. Additionally there are a number of professional colleges that offer specialized courses related to specific careers outside the traditional university system. In addition to academic qualifications that are offered through universities and colleges, Iceland also offers a wide range of apprenticeships and vocational qualifications in various fields such as construction trades, hospitality management and health care services. These programs provide individuals with important skills needed in order to get employment within these industries but also often provide additional qualifications that can be used towards further study at university level if desired by the individual student. Overall Iceland’s educational system provides quality educational opportunities at all levels which should help its citizens develop their skills and further their career prospects both within Iceland and abroad. Higher education appears particularly accessible due to government subsidies available to Icelandic university students which makes tuition costs relatively low compared to other countries in Europe. See educationvv for Iceland educational systems.