According to andyeducation, the educational system in Botswana is divided into three levels: pre-primary, primary, and secondary. Pre-primary education is not compulsory but is recommended for children aged four to six years old. Primary education is compulsory for all children between the ages of seven and fourteen and consists of seven years of instruction in subjects such as English, math, science, social studies and physical education. Secondary education consists of four years of instruction in grades nine through twelve. The curriculum at all levels is based on the national curriculum framework which sets out the goals for each grade level as well as the core competencies and skills that students should be able to demonstrate upon graduation. The national curriculum emphasizes critical thinking, problem solving and communication skills as well as a strong foundation in traditional academic subjects such as mathematics, science and language arts. The government of Botswana has implemented several initiatives aimed at increasing access to quality education for disadvantaged populations such as rural communities or minority groups. These initiatives include programs such as bilingual education in rural areas or special scholarships specifically designed for indigenous students who are looking to pursue higher education opportunities outside their home communities. In addition, the government has also implemented a number of policies aimed at improving educational outcomes including teacher training programs and school improvement initiatives. See educationvv for Botswana educational systems.