|а Гора – Crna Gora|
|Road network length||5,277 km|
|Length of highway network||42 km|
|Motorway name||Car pit|
|License plate code||MNE|
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Crna Gora / Црна Гора) is a small country in southeastern Europe. The country has 622,000 inhabitants and has an area of 13,812 km². The capital is Podgorica.
According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, Montenegro is located in the western Balkans, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Serbia to the north and Kosovo and Albaniain the East. The small country measures approximately 120 by 120 kilometers. Montenegro is a very mountainous country, located in the Dinaric Alps. Only around the capital Podgorica are plains, elsewhere there are complex mountain ranges with canyons, karst and Mediterranean fjords. The 2,534 meter high Zla Kolata on the border with Albania is the highest point in Montenegro. The mountain range Durmitor in the northwest of Montenegro reaches almost the same height with the 2,522 meter high Bobotuv Kuk. Well-known canyons are those of the Tara and Piva. Lake Skadar on the border with Albania is the largest lake in the country. Famous is the Bay of Kotor, which is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Montenegro has a variable climate, from a Mediterranean to subtropical climate in the south to a continental climate and alpine climate in the interior. The average maximum temperature in Podgorica ranges from 10°C in January to 32°C in July. The high mountains on the coast ensure that maritime influences only apply directly to the coast. In Podgorica there is almost 1,700 mm of rain per year, very much by European standards, but this precipitation mainly falls in autumn and winter, the summers are drier.
Montenegro’s population doubled from 310,000 in 1920 to 620,000 in 2000. See Montenegro population density. Population growth came to a halt from then on due to a lower birth rate. Most of Montenegro’s population is Slavic, but no ethnic group constitutes a majority. The Montenegrins make up 45% of the population and Serbs a further 29%. Bosniaks and Muslims make up 10% of the population and Albanians about 5%.
The official language of Montenegro is Montenegrin, a form of Serbo-Croatian and is interchangeable with Croatian and Serbian. Albanian is mainly spoken in the border region of Albania, Bosnian mainly in the east, in the border region with Kosovo. Montenegrin, like Serbian, can be written in both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets, but there is an increasing use of writing mainly in the Latin alphabet.
In Montenegro there is only one city with more than 100,000 inhabitants, namely the capital Podgorica with 185,000 inhabitants. The only other city with more than 50,000 inhabitants is Nikšić. In total there are 14 towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants, of which 10 towns have less than 30,000 inhabitants.
Montenegro has mainly a service economy with little heavy industry. The level of prosperity in Montenegro is still relatively low, at about half the EU average. However, Montenegro is more prosperous than neighboring Albania, Kosovo and Bosnia-Herzegovina, mainly because it has not known any conflicts. Montenegro was a popular tourist destination in the 1980s, but the wars in neighboring countries in the 1990s had a negative impact on Montenegro’s image. The country has great potential as a tourist destination due to its attractive climate and spectacular landscapes. Most tourism is currently in the coastal region, especially in places like Budva and Kotor. In Montenegro people pay with the euro, even though the country does not belong to the European Union or the Eurozone.
In the Middle Ages there were several principalities in the area, the House of Crnojević gave name to the region from the mid-15th century: Crna Gora. It then fell under Ottoman rule. Unlike other countries in the Western Balkans, Montenegro was de facto independent from the Ottoman Empire from the late 17th century. Montenegro’s independence was recognized in 1878 by the major European powers. In 1905 it became a kingdom and after World War I it became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
In 1941 Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany, then it was placed under Italian control. Montenegro was the site of the first armed uprising against German occupation in Europe during 1941. The area was liberated in 1944 by the Yugoslav partisans. It then became one of the six republics within the federation of Yugoslavia. The capital Podgorica was renamed Titograd in honor of the Yugoslav leader Tito. After the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1992, Montenegro continued to belong to Yugoslavia, along with Serbia, as a union with Serbia was voted in a referendum, unlike the 4 other Yugoslav republics, which became independent. Montenegro itself was not directly affected by the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s, but Montenegrin forces did play a part in the siege of Dubrovnik. In 2003, the remaining part of Yugoslavia was decentralized and renamed to the country of Serbia and Montenegro. A referendum on whether Montenegro should become independent was held in 2006, with 55% voting in favor of an 86% turnout. Serbia and the other European countries subsequently recognized Montenegro’s independence. Together withMacedonia was Montenegro’s only former Yugoslav republic to secede nonviolently from Belgrade. In 2017, Montenegro became a member of NATO.