Capital city Port au Prince
Surface 27.750 km²
Population 11.440.000
Road network length 3.530 km
Length of highway network 0 km
First highway N/A
Motorway name N/A
Traffic drives To the right
License plate code RH

Haiti (French: République d’Haiti) is a country in the Caribbean, located on the island of Hispaniola. The country belongs to the continent of North America and has 11 million inhabitants. The capital is Port-au-Prince.


According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, Haiti comprises the western part of the island of Hispaniola and has a land border with the Dominican Republic. The country consists of two large peninsulas with the Gulf of Gonâve in between. To the south is the Caribbean Sea, to the north the Atlantic Ocean. Cuba is 90 kilometers west of northern Haiti, the Bahamas is 115 kilometers away and Jamaica is 190 kilometers away. Haiti is a mountainous country, with steep ridges in both the north and south, with the 2,680 meter high Pic la Selle as the highest point. The northwest of Haiti has a more desert-like character. Haiti has a tropical climate, the average maximum temperature in Port-au-Prince varies from 27 to 30°C.


City Population (2015)
Port au Prince 987.000
Gonaives 324.000
Cap-Haitien 274.000

Haiti has more than 11 million inhabitants, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean. It grew from 3.2 million in 1950 to 8.5 million in 2000. See Haiti population density. The capital Port-au-Prince has 1.2 million inhabitants, with a further approximately 1 million inhabitants in the suburbs. Of the 10 largest cities, 5 are located around Port-au-Prince. The largest city outside this region is Cap-Haïtien, which has more than half a million inhabitants. Of the major countries in the Americas, Haiti has by far the largest black population, at about 95%. The other 5% is made up of mulattos, which is a mix of Africans and Europeans, and only Europeans, a very small group. French is spoken in Haiti, as well as Creole. French is the official language, but not all Haitians speak it.


Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world and the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with a per capita GDP of just $1000. The vast majority of the population lives in poverty and two-thirds to three-quarters have no formal job. Haiti’s main export product is textile products. Agricultural products are exported relatively little because there is a shortage of food in the country. Poor infrastructure, corruption and inadequate education are major barriers to the Haitian economy. The country is highly dependent on foreign aid. The 2010 earthquake caused major damage to the already poorly maintained infrastructure.


Columbus landed in Haiti in 1492 and claimed the island for Spain. The island was then under Spanish colonial rule, but the French also began to colonize it from the 17th century, their colony was known as Saint-Domingue. In 1697, Spain formally recognized French rule over the western part of Hispaniola, which was then divided into a French part (Haiti) and a Spanish part (Dominican Republic). To grow sugar cane, France imported slaves from Africa. In the late 18th century, 40,000 French settlers lived in Saint-Domingue, almost as many as French Canada at the time. In 1788 the colony had about 750,000 inhabitants, of which 700,000 were African slaves. In 1791, a slave revolt began in the north, after which slavery in Saint-Domingue was abolished in 1792. However, the revolution continued and as the Africans were far in majority over the European settlers, France was unable to reclaim the country. France then gave up its ambitions in North America and Saint-Domingue declared independence on January 1, 1804, making it the second independent country in North America after the United States. However, independence was not recognized by the United States and many European countries. France did not recognize independence until 1825. However, independence was not recognized by the United States and many European countries. France did not recognize independence until 1825. However, independence was not recognized by the United States and many European countries. France did not recognize independence until 1825.

Between 1822 and 1844, the entire island of Hispaniola was under Haitian rule. The eastern half revolted and the war was unpopular among the Haitians, after which the eastern part continued as the Dominican Republic. The empire of Haiti existed between 1849 and 1859, on the model of Napoleon. The emperor, Faustin Soulouque, tried several times to recapture the eastern part of the island from Haiti, but this was unsuccessful. Haiti was then in debt to France, Germany and the United States.

In 1915 an American occupation of Haiti followed to safeguard the interests and payments. The American occupation would eventually last 19 years. During this period, Haiti’s infrastructure was developed, with the construction of roads and an electricity network. American troops left the island in 1934, after which a somewhat stable period followed, with increasing tourism from Europeans and Americans. This did not last long, however, in 1957 François Duvalier came to power who maintained an authoritarian regime. He was succeeded in 1971 by his son Jean-Claude Duvalier, who was president until a coup in 1986. Several coups followed. Internal conflict, corruption, coups and natural disasters mean that Haiti has barely developed since the 1950s. In 2010, Haiti was hit by an earthquake that killed about 150,000 people. In 2021 President Moise was assassinated.

Haiti Location Map