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Cyprus (Greek: Κύπρος, Turkish: Kıbrıs) is a country and island in Asia, although it is considered part of Europe economically and culturally. It consists of a Greek-speaking part, which belongs to the EU, and the Turkish Northern Republic of Cyprus, which is occupied by Turkey and does not belong to the EU. The island has 1.1 million inhabitants and has an area of about a quarter of the Netherlands. The capital is Nicosia.
According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located in the Eastern Mediterranean, 160 kilometers south of the coast of Turkey and 200 kilometers west of the coast of Syria. The island measures 225 by 75 kilometers. Cyprus is relatively mountainous, with two large mountain ranges, a narrow east-west mountain range in the north with peaks between 500 and 1000 meters, and a larger mountain range in the south of the island with the 1,952 meter high Olympos as the highest point of the island. Island. Between the two mountain ranges is a large valley in which the border between Turkish Cyprus and Greek Cyprus is located, as well as the capital Nicosia.
The island has a Mediterranean climate that is somewhat tempered on the highest mountain areas. The island has hot summers and mild winters, snow only falls in the mountains. The average maximum temperature in Nicosia ranges from 15°C in January to 37°C in July. The precipitation is less than 350 mm per year, making Cyprus very dry. Precipitation mostly falls in the period from November to February, then gradually decreases until summer, where there is almost no rain at all.
Cyprus consists of two cultural areas, Northern Cyprus, where the Turkish Cypriots live, and the rest of Cyprus, where the Greek Cypriots live. See Cyprus population density. The population grew from 230,000 inhabitants in 1900 to half a million in 1950. Since then, no reliable censuses have been carried out covering the entire island. The part administered by the Republic of Cyprus grew from 580,000 inhabitants in 1990 to 850,000 inhabitants in 2015.
The largest city is Nicosia, which is divided between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus. The dividing line runs right through the center, but the southern part is considerably larger than the northern part, the population of the entire city was estimated at 200,000 in 2011. Limassol is the only other larger city, located on the south coast with over 150,000 inhabitants. The other cities are considerably smaller.
Cyprus has two official languages, Greek and Turkish. English was the lingua franca of Cyprus for many years and was used by the government, even today most road signs and signposts are still in English. About 80% of the population speaks English.
The Republic of Cyprus formally encompasses the entire island, but the northern part was occupied by Turkey in 1974 and has since been formed by the Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized by no other country except Turkey. The northern part is considered occupied territory by the international community. The island is divided into six districts, partly outside the administration of the Republic of Cyprus. The district boundaries do not follow the de facto boundary since 1974 and lie partly in Northern Cyprus. A United Nations buffer zone separates Northern Cyprus from the rest of Cyprus. There is also Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British overseas territory in Cyprus that includes military bases. In these British zones there are again four Cypriot exclaves. Unlike Northern Cyprus, Akrotiri and Dhekelia are not disputed.
Cyprus belongs to the European Union and is a prosperous country, with an income of $35,000 per inhabitant. However, income in the Turkish part of Cyprus is considerably lower. In Cyprus people pay with the euro, except in the Turkish part. The country may have large oil reserves, but the Turkish navy does not allow drilling for oil. The island is an important tourist destination, especially many Russians.
The island has been ruled by numerous great powers throughout history, such as the Assyrian Empire, Egypt, Persia, Greece, and the Roman Empire, as well as a short-lived Arab rule. The island was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire between 1571 and 1878, after which it was placed under British rule. In 1914 it was formally annexed by the United Kingdom. 18% of the population was Turkish, which led to tensions after World War II to establish a Turkish Cypriot state in the north. At the time, the Greek-speaking population formed a union with Greecepursued. In 1960 Cyprus became independent from the United Kingdom, which, however, retained two military bases on the island as overseas territory. Violence broke out between Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots in 1963, followed in 1974 by a coup d’état by Greek nationalists to annex Cyprus to Greece. In response, a Turkish invasion of the island followed a few days later, after which a UN buffer zone was created between the two parts. In 1983, a Turkish Cypriot state was proclaimed in the north, a country recognized only by Turkey. Cyprus joined the European Union in 2004 and became part of the Eurozone in 2008. However, Cyprus is not part of the Schengen area.