|Armenia – Hayastan|
|Road network length||7.513 km|
|Length of highway network||192 km|
|Traffic drives||To the right|
|License plate code||AM|
Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստան, Hayastan) is a small country in the Caucasus. It belongs to both Europe and Asia by different definitions. The country has almost 3 million inhabitants, more than a third of whom live in the capital Yerevan.
According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, Armenia is an inner state in the Caucasus, located at the transition from Europe to Asia. The country borders Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkey. The country measures approximately 360 by 160 kilometers. The country is dominated by the Lesser Caucasus, with the 4,090 meter high Aragats as the highest point. Located in Turkey, Ararat (5,137 meters) is clearly visible from Armenia and is seen as a national symbol. Armenia is one of the highest average countries in the world. The country has one large lake, Lake Sevan in the central east of the country. Armenia’s largest river is the Aras, which forms the border with Turkey and Iran.
The country has a highland climate, with dry, hot summers and cold winters with lots of snow. The average maximum temperature in Yerevan ranges from 1°C in January to 34°C in July. The average rainfall in Yerevan is only 300 mm, most of which falls in autumn and spring. The number of hours of sunshine is approximately 2,500, a result of the often dry weather.
The population of Armenia grew from 1.3 million in 1950 to 3.6 million in 1991, after which a steady decline in population started. In 2016, the population shrank to below the limit of 3 million inhabitants. See Armenia population density. The largest city is the capital Yerevan, which has more than 1 million inhabitants, so a third of the population. Furthermore, only Gyumri has 120,000 inhabitants, the other cities are smaller. There are only three cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants.
The country is populated by Armenians, who make up 98% of the population. Other minorities are very small. Armenian is the language spoken by almost the entire population. Armenian is an Indo-European language with no direct relatives. Armenian has its own alphabet that also has no direct relatives. Traditionally, Russian was taught, so that relatively many Armenians also speak Russian. Knowledge of English is growing, but is still relatively limited.
The Armenian diaspora is extensive, the Armenians outside Armenia are estimated at approximately 8 million, 2.5 times as many as live in Armenia itself. The largest groups of these live in Russia and the United States, as well as elsewhere in the Middle East and some European countries.
The Armenian economy is heavily dependent on remittances from the Armenian diaspora. The economy of Armenia has traditionally been heavily based on industry, however, after independence from the Soviet Union, the importance of agriculture increased. The industry has fallen into disrepair. In 1988 the country was hit by a magnitude 6.8 earthquake that caused extensive damage and limited the development of Armenia in the period after. The economy has recovered somewhat since the late 1990s, but the country is relatively underdeveloped, the limited infrastructure and location outside the major trade routes mean that Armenia is relatively isolated. Corruption is also a problem in the country.
Armenia is one of the great ancient kingdoms, under Tigranes II the Kingdom of Armenia stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Caspian Sea. This also explains the Armenian diaspora in these areas. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the area was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, until the eastern part of the area was conquered by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. During World War I, Armenians in the Ottoman Empire were oppressed and persecuted in what is called the Armenian Genocide. The Republic of Armenia briefly existed between 1918 and 1920, which subsequently became a socialist republic of the Soviet Union. Armenia gained independence in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed. Meanwhile, the Nagorno-Karabakh War, which raged from 1988 to 1994, was already underway. This took place in southwestern Azerbaijan, but was fought between Armenians and Azeris. This was followed by the de facto independent country of Nagorno-Karabakh, which, however, no other UN country recognized. It is also seen as part of Armenia due to the dependence on Armenia. In 2017, Nagorno-Karabakh changed its name to Artsakh. In 2020, Azerbaijan managed to conquer large parts of Nagorno-Karabakh.